During the 20th century hundreds of thousands of Southern Appalachian people left the mountains of Kentucky, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia,Tennessee looking for factory jobs and a better life in the north. This was the second largest migration of people within the United States. Hundreds of thousands of Appalachian people migrated to the north bringing their culture with them. This was a largely unknown but significant event in American history and my family was part of this migration when they left the mountains of Kentucky for "Dee-troit" Michigan. This is a small part of their love and hate, north and south story.


Moses Fletcher sarah martin fauquier county Virginia Kyles Ford Fletcher Genealogy

web data notes: moses fletcher sarah martin Peter Murray, Freeman Noe, Billy Jones, douglas eugene johnson brighton michigan, karen lynn wilson brighton michigan, douglas eugene johnson bakersville north carolina, colleen johnson brighton michigan, darlene johnson Columbiaville Michigan, Columbiaville Michigan Darlene Johnson, allen d johnson Yale Michigan, brockway michigan, doug johnson Yale Michigan, judy sharp, renee sharp, frank sharp, buckingham rd. detroit michigan,

They Wrote Happy Songs About Leaving Kentucky

"I left Kentucky back in 49 and went to Dee-troit workin' on the assembly line"

web data notes: moses fletcher sarah martin douglas eugene johnson brighton michigan, karen lynn wilson brighton michigan, douglas eugene johnson bakersville north carolina, colleen johnson brighton michigan, darlene johnson Columbiaville Michigan, Columbiaville Michigan Darlene Johnson, allen d johnson Yale Michigan, brockway michigan, doug johnson Yale Michigan, judy sharp, renee sharp, frank sharp, buckingham rd. detroit michigan,

They Wrote Sad Songs About Leaving Kentucky

"You'll Never Leave Harlan Alive."

...And when they got homesick, they wrote songs about that too.

They even made movies about leaving Kentucky...and then going back home.

The Doll Maker

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My Family Left Kentucky

1 kentucky
Photo: Corn on the left, beans on the right, Manchester Kentucky.

This is a story about love and hate. They loved Appalachia and hated to leave. They hated Detroit but loved the better lifestyle it offered. My parents also left eastern Kentucky and moved to Detroit in search of a better life. The information on this page is the product of a lot of time and effort so first, a special thanks to Fletcher researchers and others! Thanks to
  • Marilyn Brown, John E. Fletcher PhD, Richard Fletcher, Tommy Jones, Nadine Christall, Frances Howard Hickey, Robert House and all the people I am sure I forgot.

    Also, a thanks to Ohio Social Studies teacher Sandra Ford for her research help and Michigan Math and Science teacher Karen Johnson. .

  • It Takes One To Know One

    ***************************** moses fletcher sarah martin PICTURE POKE SALAD ********

    poke salad salet
    This project was completed as part of a unit plan I did while in graduate school to complete my Masters Degree in teaching. Some say, "It takes one to know one." When I was student teaching in the Detroit area I met Karen Johnson and I kept getting the feeling that I knew her from somewhwere, something was familiar about her, I couldn't quite put my finger on it. Then one day she said the magic words to me..."poke salet" Poke salet, AKA polk salad, and several other spellings is basically wild spinich and is an Appalachian dish known only to people of a "hillbilly" background. Karen knew what polk salet was and how to cook it because her father, Doug Johnson of Bakersville North Carolina was from Appalachia as my father was. Everyone knows about biscuits and gravy, corn bread, a few know about soup beans but outside of my family, Karen was the only person I ever met that knew about the Hillbilly dish called poke salet which I remember eating as a kid growing up in Detroit. While researching this project discovered that my mother used to actually buy canned poke salet in Detroit grocery stores up until about the early to mid 1970s. "Poke" was not as uncommon as I thought and I found the photo at left of canned poke salet on the web.

    Karen and I had very similar backgrounds and out of curiosity I went back into the little family information I had and looked to see if we were related to the Johnsons in some way. Fletcher and Johnson are pretty common names and several Fletchers have married several Johnsons but I never found a link between the line of Douglas Eugene Johnson of Bakersville North Carolina and my Wilson Fletcher line from Manchester kentucky and Kyles Ford Tennessee. In my research, one thing led to another, I had a DNA test done and I eventually traced my family back to early 1700s America through my DNA match to Dick and Rex Fletcher as well as several other men. Men carry a Y chromosome virtually unchanged generation after generation and finding my DNA matches who had a good paper trail back to Moses Fletcher in 1700s Virgina is where my research ended.

    ******moses fletcher sarah martin ***** Pete House **** Manchester Kentucky cemetery cemeteries graveyard **

    How We Came To Dee-troit

    wilma fletcher
    Wilma and Zelma Sanders, Little Bull Run Holler, Knox County Kentucky. My mom, Wilma Sanders Fletcher and her younger sister Zelma Sanders Scourtes were brought to Detroit from Knox County Kentucky in the early 1940s by their parents Charles Sanders and Louise Henson Sanders. Charles and Louise both worked were able to get assembly line jobs at Chrysler. Mom met my dad in Detroit and they got married there.

    matt12.jpg My father on the left, Matt Fletcher in Manchester Kentucky about 1937. Notice the safety pin holding up his bibbed overalls. Dad came from Manchester Kentucky and had 11 brothers and sisters for a total of 12. In my research I learned that the Appalachian migration to Detroit and other industrial cities was the second largest migration of Americans in U.S. history. These people left Appalachia and traveled a great distance to find work and a better life through working on the Detroit assembly line and the experiences we all share are very similar. For instance, foods like chicken & duplings shuck beans, soup beans & cornbread, poke salet, biscuits and gravy, oranges for Christmas as well as other traditions. Most of the Appalachian transplants first settled in Detroit and then migrated to the suburbs. At least 100,000 people left Appalachia for Detroit. Some estimates are as high as 500,000.

    Many Scotch Irish Appalachian families had very similiar migration patters coming into Detroit from places like Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee and West Virginia. They arrived on the east coast of America, ofen in Virginia. Then came into Appalachia through the Cumberland Gap and established farms in bottom lands (hollers) of the mountains. Then, during the industrial revolution, they swung north seeking factory jobs and they brought their culture with them.

    Early Days Of Living Hillbilly In Detroit


    John crit white clay county kentucky manchester nunu fletcher deleware moses fletcher loudoun fauquirer county va

    ********** moses fletcher sarah martin *******

    mom and dad 2.jpg Mom and dad were both from Kentucky but met in Detroit. My dad came to Detroit directly from Germany after getting out of the Army beause his brother wrote to him and told him they were hiring in Detroit. Mom had come up as a child from Kentucky about ten years earlier with her mother and father. Mom was engaged at 16 and married at 17. Dad was ten years older.

    Hundreds of thousands of Southern Appalachian MigrantS (SAMS) moved North to places like Detroit in the 1940s to the 1980s. My own first cousin Tommy Jones used to come up form Kentucky in the summers to work for my dad and go back each fall. It has been estimated that as many as one million Appalachians moved to the Detroit area. The phrase "hilibilly highway" was coined referring to the out-migration of residents of the Appalachian mountains to places like Detroit. These Appalachian factory workers became "stranded" here in Michigan when they married and had children. Many came intending to go back south but never do because their children and grandchildren were born in Michigan and they do not want to leave family members. Another dilemma is where to bury the Appalachian transplants once they pass on.

    Should they be buried in Michigan where the kids and grand-kids can come to visit the grave? Or, bury them back in Appalachia where they often have a family plot? These are issues that I imagine are unique to Appalachian families who migrated to the north. My father made the choice to be buried in Kentucky in the family plot near his parents, grandparents and siblings. We still travel the 500 miles to put flowers on his grave but cannot make the trip every year as we did in the past.

    ************** PICTURE DAD IN UNIFORM PICTURES SET AT 280 X 280 **************

    ************** PICTURE DAD IN UNIFORM PICTURES SET AT 280 X 280 **************

    matt fletcher uniform.jpg Growing up, my dad was pretty popular with my friends because he was a real character, always had a good story to tell in his strong Appalachian (and often imitated) accent. His accent was so thick that I often had to translate what he said for my friends. I didn't realize until later in life that I was bilingual ! For instance: "Yens go yander n cut me a sweetch." Translation: We are about to get an ass whoppin! Or, "I'll whoop you more ways than a country boy can go to town." Translation: We are about to get an ass whoppin! And my favorite, "I'll turn you every way but loose" Translation: We are about to get an ass whoopin! Dad would also take me and my friends fishing and let us shoot BB guns in our backyard... and none of us kids ever shot our eye out either! We spent MANY hours shooting and still to this day I can pick up any unfamilar gun and out-shoot most. At one point we even kept live chickens in our east side Detroit garage and always had a vegetable garden. Dad also hired many of my buddies and Appalachian cousins to work for him in his contracting business. Myself as well as several of my buddies worked our way through college painting houses for my dad each summer. We had a diverse work crew with a mixture of "Dee-troit" college boys and hillbilly farm boys. I was a little of each. Dad was smart but he only had a 6th grade education from a one room school-house in rural Kentucky and that held him back. People who migrated from Appalachia were not generally very well educated and my family was no exception. Most had not graduated high school and no one in my immediate family had ever gone to college. Being the neighborhood hillbillies wasn't always easy on my family and many times I saw our Appalachian background as something to hide, overcome and not to embrace. We all spoke with a bit of an Appalachian twang, ate strange foods, had guns hanging on the walls in our house and chickens in our yard, as a contractor dad wore bibbed overalls much of the time so we didn't exactly fit in. Bringing girls home to meet the family was interesting to say the least so I didn't do much of that. But as I have aged I have gained a deeper understaning of my background and a genuine appreciation for my culture (poke salet and soup beans is a culture?....who knew?).

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    *********************************** PICTURE MANDY HENSON SET AT 280 X 280 *****************************

    granny henson
    Harvey "Bo" Henson and Sally "Granny" Henson are my great grand parents from my mom's side in Knox County Kentucky. They may have called her Granny because she did look a lot like Granny of the Beverly Hillbillies. Granny lived with us some of the time after Bo died about 1970. Granny Henson didn't have any teeth, refused to wear her false teeth, spoke in a very thick Appalachain accent and used copenhagen chewing tobacco. Granny generally used a soup can as her spit cup and this embarrased the heck out of me when my citified friends came over to visit. My friends would often say, "WHO IS THAT!" And I would just die inside. Now I can laugh about it but growing up it I was a little embarrassed by some of my Appalachian relatives.

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    mandy henson
    At left, mid 1970s photo of Great Aunt Mandy Henson, daughter of Granny Henson, sister to my grandmother on mom's side of the family. This was in Bull Run Holler (valley) located in Knox County Kentucky. Like a lot of folks in the area Mandy had no indoor plumbing so it was a real adventure when we would visit her. I'm not sure if Aunt Mandy ever came to Detroit to work on the assembly line or not but I know all of her siblings did. Many of my relatives came to Detroit just long enough to make enough money to buy a farm and them moved back to Kentucky. Living in Detroit we of course had indoor plumbing but it was the visits to Appalachia that made us "youngins" realize why our father had left there and how lucky we were. This hard life made for hard people. Appalachian people are often tough people and take pride in being able to shoot and fight. There is also a concept known as "Appalachian brain drain" which basically means that many of the smartest and most ambitious people left appalachia for the city, better living condition, better medical care and a better education for their kids. My dad used to talk about this but I am sure he never heard the term "Appalachian brain drain" in his life.

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    myrtle fletcher.jpg Many Appalachian people claim to be part American Indian and my family is no different. This is my grandmother Myrtle Fletcher. Her features certainly appear to make her look like she was half Indian as I have been told...but who knows for sure. Additional DNA testing could determine this but I never bothered to have that particular test done. We could be Greek for all I know. Her hair was very dark brown or black as was my fathers and most of his siblings. Myrtle White Fletcher was the daughter of John Critendon "Crit" White and Annie Delph. John Crit White had at least 4 wives. Delph, also spelled Delf is a German name. Myrtle White Fletcher married William "W.M." Fletcher at age 13 or 14. William was about 26 when he married Myrtle. I think the reason so many young Appalachian women marry older men is....resources. I think large poor families were glad to marry off their young daughters so they'd have one less mouth to feed. They married older men because it took a while for a man to get the money together to buy his own homestead. All of the boys the same age as the young girls were still living at home theselves. Some left for Detroit as soon as they were old enough to seek work on the assembly line.

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    ASHI Logo
    Photo at left was taken at the home of Bill and Mable Jones-Fletcher. These are seven of the twelve children of W.M. and Myrtle Fletcher of Manchester Kentucky. As noted above, all had very dark brown or black hair. My aunt Amanda Fletcher Keith in the front left, red white and blue shirt, lived to be 90 years old and never dyed her hair. At age 90 Mandy had less gray hair than most people in their 50s. All of my aunts seemed to be proud of their thick raven hair and American Indian roots.

    Shuttle Migration Between Detroit and Kentucky. Our Timeline


    ASHI Logo
    sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher
    One of the concepts in the migration of people is "shuttle migration" and this is basically where people go back and forth between two places multiple times before settling in one place. We did a lot of shuttle migration and I reckon I am a bit of an expert. My immediate family always lived in Detroit but many of our relatives went back and forth between Kentuck and Detroit. We made frequent trips "down home" to visit them.

    The photo at left was taken in Knox County Kentucky about 1963. This is my dad, myself in diapers and my two sisters.

    matt fletcher uniform.jpg sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher

    The photo at left was taken in Knox County Kentucky about 1967, that's my cousin, Johnny Wayne Sanders, great grand mother Granny Henson (mom's side), and myself in Knox County Kentucky. Regular trips my family took back to Kentucky kept us in touch with our Appalachian culture. When "down home" we would hunt, fish, eat shuck beans, soup beans, squirrels, cornbread, and use an outhouse. Some of my relatives had running water inside the house and others simply had a pump out in the yard and an out-house. As a child, when someone asked my nationality, I would actually say, "I'm a hillbilly" and that is the god's honest truth. Today, I would have a more complex answer, and would likely bore the asker to tears. But yes, I am a hillbilly at heart.

    Matt fletcher clay county kentucky

    matt fletcher uniform.jpg

    sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher

    A year or two later back in Detroit at our home located at 1182 Gray on the east side of the city. We later moved to 4151 Buckingham, then out of the city limits which was typical of most people like us.

    In the photo, that is my mom holding me, my sisters standing and the other boy is my cousin Tommy Jones. Tommy and I have been closer than most of our other cousins since Tommy came to Detroit to live with us, work on the assembly line as well as work for my dad. I think Tommy was born in Detroit, lived in Troy Michigan which was the country back then. As soon as his dad earned enough to buy a farm, they moved back to Kentucky and we would often visit them as well as other family members.

    Matt fletcher clay county kentucky


    sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher

    At left, back in Kentucky about 1973 visiting relatives during Memorial Day or "Decoration Day" as they call it "down home" in Appalachia. From left, Beve Fletcher in glasses, Tommy jones, me, Doug Fletcher, Wayne Jones and my dad in the mustache. We generally went to Kentucky in the spring for Decoration Day and sometimes back again in the fall to squirrel hunt. You haven't lived until you wake up on a fall morning to a freezing house, put coal on the fire to warm the house up, had fried squirrel, biscuits & squirrel gravey, and cow's milk for breakfast!

    To my left is Cousin Tommy Jones. Tommy traveled back and forth between Detroit and Kentucky quite a lot. He came to Detroit for work and went back to Kentucky because he missed it. He did that several times. Tommy was the definition of shuttle migration and had the love and hate relationship with the Detroit and appalachia.

    kyles ford clinch river fletcher

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    tommys house.jpg

    sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher

    Little Bull Run Holler, about 1978. Wayne Jones, Michael Fletcher, myself, and Tommy Jones. Fixing up the Kentucky farm house that Tommy Jones and his family bought when they left Troy Michigan. They went from living in a nice suburban Detroit home with hot and cold running water and indoor plumbing, to a broken-down old farm with only cold running water in the kitchen sink and NO INDOOR BATHROOM for a few years. They fixed it up over several years and added a bathroom, but no septic tank. The waste ran out of a PVC pipe down the side of the hill and into a large pasture far from the house. This is pretty common in the mountains and was never a sanitary issue since they had a large farm. When we visited, we camped in their yard, slept in a tent and used the out-house which was still in use. As a teen, Tommy came back to Detroit to work for my dad several summers as well as on the assembly line at Chrysler. When we visited them Kentucky, I sat on the back of a tobacco setter, pulled by a tractor, and helped set out tobacco plants on my cousin's farm. A few times my dad and I drove to Kentucky to get cousin Tommy in the spring. While there, we sometimes helped set out a little tobacco and other crops, then went back to Detroit to work for my dad all summer and then brought Tommy back to Kentucky for the fall harvest and to strip tobacco. Again, Chad Berry PhD refers to shuttle migration in his great book, Southern Migrants, Northern Exiles.

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    Howard Jones

    sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher

    Howard Jones slopin the hogs, Little Bull Run Holler, Knox County Kentucky. Howard is the father to my first cousins, Lowell Thomas "Tommy" Jones and his brother Wayne Jones. Howard came to Detroit to work in the factories and met my dad's sister there. They bought a house in Troy Michigan which was rural back in the late 1960s. They eventually moved back to Kentucky and we often visted them on the large Kentucky farm they bought.

    I took this picture in the late 1970s. On this farm we did a lot of shooting of guns, squirrel hunting, and helped a little on the farm. I remember churning butter on the farm but not in the typical way. We had cow's milk in a large glass jar probably about 1 gallon in size. Cream would be scraped off of the raw cow's milk put in the jar, and We took turns shanking the jar with cow's milk with our hands while watching TV or sitting on the porch shooting the guns. Eventually we got butter.

    I can also remember during the 1970s, we could hear the sound of dynamite going off and the earth shaking from the strip mining of coal being done a few miles away. Strip mining did a lot of damage to the land but a lot of my relatives made pretty good money from it as well.

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    mark ricky matt

    sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher

    About 1979, myself, an employee of dad's and my dad. We are in our backyard at 4151 Buckingham in Detroit. Dad is in his famous white over-all which he almost always wore. Dad had a hard life gowing up in Manchester Kentucky in the 1930s and he always reminded me of it. He said the kids in his area used to go down to the train station and load into box cars to be taken up to Maine, or Vermont to harvest potatoes. He said they also got just one new pair of shoes per year and if those wore out, they went barefoot. No indoor plumbing or electricity in the house. I grew up beliving I was spoiled beause I had indoor plumbing and two meals a day. We never ate breakfast, just lunch and supper.

    mark andn tommy in yard.jpg

    sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher

    About 1980, Myself and Tommy at 4151 Buckingham in Detroit. We lived directly behind John E.Clark Elementary School and as a child, we would often climb the 12 foot fence to play in the school yard. My parents talked about moving to the country since theiy were familiar with the rural lifestyle. But it never happened and we remained in the city.

    I am wearing my painter's clothes because we had been doing some house painting that day. My dad almost always wore white bibbed painter's overalls. In fact, that is how people recognized him ..."that hillbilly guy in the overalls."

    Tommy generally lived with us in the summers and went back to Kentucky in the late fall while I went back to the community college to try and figure out what I wanted to be when I grew up. When we couldn't drive him, Tommy would sometimes take the Grayhound bus back and forth to Kentucky and we would pick him up at the Detroit bus station. Tommy didn't own a suitcase and he would have his clothes in a cardboard box. I eventually graduated from college and was hired into General Motors where I worked in the marketing department for seven years but quit that job to beocome a teacher . Tommy grew up in Troy Michigan and Kentucky and could never decide where he wanted to live....there or here. Eventually Tommy met a Kentucky girl and stayed there.

    sandra dee fletcher, linda fletcher, mathew mark fletcher, michael david fletcher

    mark and tommy in KY.jpg About 25 years later and a few pounds heavier, me and Tommy back in Kentucky on Memorial Day AKA "Decoration Day" in Appalachia. Note the mountains in the background. Two cousins separated by about 500 miles but held together by our culture. Shuttle migration was a real concept in my family and we spent a lot of time going up and down I-75 which has also been called "the hillbilly highway" over the years. Tommy and I did most of the genealogy research on our family and he is still my closest cousin today.

    After going back and forth between Detroit and Kentucky several times, working on the assembly line at Chrysler, Tommy finally settled in Kentucky. I still go visit him and the rest of my relatives when I can.

    zelma 22
    Today, back in Michigan we still act like a bunch of hillbillies at times. This is a photo of my 80 year old aunt with a coon she just killed with a rifle in Avoca Michigan. My cousin posted the photo on Facebook and said she was in the bathroom getting ready for bed and heard a shot and ran to see what was going on. She found her kentucky born mother holding the dead coon. She will likely tan the hide and make a hat, cook and eat some of it and feed the rest to the dogs. This same aunt once caught a live possum on our neighbor's front lawn when we lived on Buckingham in Detroit. I can still remember her standing there holding it by the tail and all the neighbors looking in astonishment. We let that one go!

    I was recently reaquainted with a childhood buddy. He reminded me of an inncident. He and his brother we spending the night at our house in Detroit and my mom heard a strange noise and grabbed a 12 gauge double barrel shotgun to go investigate. He said he and his brother were looking at each other, eyes bugged out and mouths hanging open. It turned out to be nothing but he still remembered that double barrel 40+ years later and said that was the first time he had ever seen a gun up close.

    A Visit "Down home" To See My Cousin Tommy Jones


    web data notes: Freeman Noe, Lynda Roberts Manchester kentucky, Jake Roberts Manchester Kentucky. judy sharp, renee sharp, frank sharp, buckingham rd. detroit michigan,

    Visiting My Last Living Uncle John Crit Fletcher

    The last of my 11 aunts and uncles on dad's side


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    wilson fletcher
    Decoration Day at the Fletcher Graveyard on Pennington Rd., Manchester Kentucky. This photo was taken around 2006 and we had a pretty good turn out of relatives that year. But each year more people pass away, or are old and sick and fewer and fewer people show up. Several people in this photo have since passed on. It is sad to see this happen, but life goes on.

    web data notes: douglas eugene johnson brighton michigan, karen lynn wilson brighton michigan, douglas eugene johnson bakersville north carolina, colleen johnson brighton michigan, darlene johnson Columbiaville Michigan, Columbiaville Michigan Darlene Johnson, allen d johnson Yale Michigan, brockway michigan, doug johnson Yale Michigan, judy sharp, renee sharp, frank sharp, buckingham rd. detroit michigan,
    wilson fletcher
    Fletcher family cemetery/graveyard on Pennington Road in Manchester Kentucky. When I look at the pictures of our family plot I think of the song at the top of this page, "You'll Never Leave Harlan Alive" and wonder if that is such a bad thing. I guess you are damned if you do, and damned if you don't leave the holler. That dark headstone on the right is my dad's.

    Conclusions and observations: A heck of a lot of people came from Appalachia to Detroit looking for work and a better life and they brought their culture with them and I share this culture with people in Detroit and Appalachia. When I was younger I never thought of the Appalachian "Hillbilly Culture" as a culture at all but more of an obstacle to overcome. All of my immediate and extended family were from Appalachia and being immersed in Appalachian culture in Detroit shapes who you become later in life. I believe that the way I speak, my mannerisms, the love I have for the outdoors, 4x4 trucks, and planting a vegtable garden all go back to my up-bringing rooted in Appalachian farming culture. Like it or not, your background shapes who you become.


    Teachers And Researchers

    I am former Social Studies teacher and think primary sources (original documents) as verification to historical events are very important. See my collection of genealogy related historical documents
  • HERE:

    Teachers who are doing a lesson on genealogy are welcome to use this lesson plan which I have used in my own classroom. I no longer do genealogy research because I felt like I took it as far as I could. I set up this web page to share my information and so that others would find it and bring me additional information so feel free to contact me. I do update this page when I receive new information and to practice my programming skills. 313-510-0284,

    The best book I have ever read on Appalachian migration is called Souther Migrants, Northern Exiles by Chad Berry. Book description here:

    "One of the largest internal migrations in U.S. history, the great white migration left its mark on virtually every family in every southern upland and flatland town. In this extraordinary record of ordinary lives, dozens of white southern migrants describe their experiences in the northern "wilderness" and their irradicable attachments to family and community in the South. Southern out-migration drew millions of southern workers to the steel mills, automobile factories, and even agricultural fields and orchards of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois. Through vivid oral histories, Chad Berry explores the conflict between migrants' economic success and their "spiritual exile" in the North. He documents the tension between factory owners who welcomed cheap, naive southern laborers and local "native" workers who greeted migrants with suspicion and hostility. He examines the phenomenon of "shuttle migration", in which migrants came north to work during the winter and returned home to plant spring crops on their southern farms. He also explores the impact of southern traditions - especially the southern evangelical church and "hillbilly" music - brought north by migrants. Berry argues that in spite of being scorned by midwesterners for violence, fecundity, intoxication, laziness, and squalor, the vast majority of southern whites who moved to the Midwest found the economic prosperity they were seeking. By allowing southern migrants to assess their own experiences and tell their own stories, "Southern Migrants, Northern Exiles" refutes persistent stereotypes about migrants' clannishness, life-style, work ethic, and success in the North."

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    Results And Discoveries Of My Research

    dick and matt 2.JPG Photo at left is Richard Jackson Fletcher and I meeting for the first time. Dick and I, along with several other men, are long lost cousins, we found each other through the genealogy DNA test that we both took. Richard Fletcher and I as well as Rex Fletcher are a perfect 67 out of 67 marker DNA match and we both go back to the Moses Fletcher/Sarah Martin line of Fauquier County VA in the early 1700s.

    This is our Y chromosome DNA sequence match:

    R1b1b2a1b5 13 24 14 10 12 15 13 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 16 18 10 10 19 23 16 15 17 18 36 38 12 12.

    The Y chromosome is carried from father to son virtually unchanged generation after generation.

    Anyway, the name Fletcher means "arrow maker" and the feather on the shaft of of an arrow is called the fletching. Fletchers come from England, Scottland and Ireland and I have close DNA matches in all three places.
    web data notes: douglas eugene johnson brighton michigan, karen lynn wilson brighton michigan, douglas eugene johnson bakersville north carolina, colleen johnson brighton michigan, darlene johnson Columbiaville Michigan, Columbiaville Michigan Darlene Johnson, allen d johnson Yale Michigan, brockway michigan, doug johnson Yale Michigan, judy sharp, renee sharp, frank sharp, buckingham rd. detroit michigan,

    henry fletcher, wilson fletcher kyles ford tennessee

    wilson fletcher.jpg One of the primary reasons I put this web page up was so other researchers would find it and contact me with more info to fill in the blanks of my family line. Well, it worked. This is Wilson Fletcher at left. When I began researching I didn't even know the name of my own great grandfather. I found out from relatives that his name was Wilson Fletcher. I eventually used census records to trace Wison Fletcher to a place called Kyles Ford Tennessee where there was a large concentration of my Fletcher ancestors. One Decoration Day (Memorial Day) my aunt Pearl Fletcher told me that Wilson was buried in an unmarked grave under a large tree at the top of our family cemetery in Manchester Kentucky. This was news to me as I did not know that Wilson had migrated to Manchester Kentucky. I thought his son William was the one that left Kyles Ford for Manchester. Since I was not interested in genealogy at the time I forgot about it. Years later, that large tree died and was cut down, and as the stump began to rot a rock headstone began to emerge. I also found the death certificate of Wilson Fletcher showing that he had in fact died in Manchester Kentucky.

    Pearl Fletcher was right, there was a grave under the tree and my later genealogy research did in fact show that Wilson Fletcher had died in Manchester Kentucky. Years later, a distant relative named Janet Fletcher-Mattingly found my genealogy web page and gave me additional information on Wilson Fletcher including this photo. So now I knew his name, where he was buried and now I even have a picture of Wilson Fletcher.

    ******* moses fletcher fauquier county VA Wilson Fletcher SET AT 280 X 280 *********

    wilson fletcher
    A few weeks after Janet Fletcher-Mattingly sent me the above photo of Wilson Fletcher, she sent me the group photo at left which Janet's granny had left her when she died and Janet realized that the man in the group photo was also my great grandfather, Wilson Fletcher. Yep, I agree, that is Wilson Fletcher, or perhaps a twin brother. I say MAYBE a twin brother only half joking because I noticed they part their hair on different sides. A man generally doesn't change which side he parts his hair on. That is also a differnt suit or at least a different vest. My relatives were dirt poor and I can't imagine any suits, let alone two. Anyway, who are the other guys?

    After looking at another photo I had of my grandfather at age 60-something, I decided that the boy on the left is likely my grandfather, W.m. Fletcher as a young boy. So, this appears to be a group family photo of just the men. I am guessing the other boy is likely John Fletcher, I think, brother to W.M. and the older man may be Henry great great grandfather who came to Kyles Ford TN with his father John or Thomas A. Fletcher. WOW! What a fantastic find. this photo was a "tin type" metal photograph typical around the time of the Civil War. I can't thank Janet enough for sending it to me.

    These guys are a rough lookin' bunch. Not a smile on a single one of them. Kyles Ford TN was still the frontier at that time and a hard life made for hard people and it is actually common to see old photos where no one smiles and they are all skinny as a bean pole. Today, people from the area still have a reputation for being tough and mean. I have heard many a story about how "mean" some hillbilly was. There is a book on this subject called "Born Fighting, How the Scots-Irish Shaped America" and one of the chapters is called, "Fight. Sing. Drink. Pray." My dad used to say, "I'm from the meanest county in the meanest town, in the meanest holler in Kentucky. And the farther you went up in our holler, the meaner the hillbillies got....and we lived in the LAST HOUSE!" Hillbillies take pride in "being mean" which I think translates to being tough and independent....they just call it "mean" in their manner of speaking. kyles ford tenn. kyles ford tn. rogersville TN mark fletcher detroit michigan. mark fletcher 4151 buckingham, mark fletcher 5734 hereford. mark fletcher home inspector.

    kyles ford fletchers


    fletcher kentucky genealogy

    My Fletcher Lineage From 1700 Virginia To Hancock & Hawkins Co.Tennessee

    From Clay Co. Kentucky To Detroit

    Kyles Ford Tennessee is located in Northern Tennessee on the boarder of Hancock, Hawkins, and Scott and Lee Counties Virginia on the north. Kyles Ford is in Hancock County now but used to be part of Hawkins County and that is where I found my supporting primary source documents. If your family is from this area, or you have something to add to this page I would love to hear from you. or or 313-510-0284.

    crit white clay county

    None of what I have on this site is carved in stone and I am open to different interpretations of the genealogy data and clues I have gathered. A good researcher is always willing to admit they are not 100% correct. However, if you disagree with me on some point, I hope you have some evidence to share. I know of one genealogy researcher who does not agree that Thomas A. Fletcher, Rev. War vet is not of my line, claiming instead that Thomas A. Was of HIS line. I pointed to my mountain of evidence showing Thomas A. Fletcher lived in Kyles Ford where I can trace my family to, the wills, a Fletcher grave yard, the land grants, the census data, and asked my fellow researcher what evicence he had....he didn't have any.

    With that said, I think my Fletcher line goes like this:

    Generation No. 1 The Early 1700s

    Via DNA testing and historical documents provided by my cousin Dick Fletcher, I know my line descends from the Moses Fletcher line of early 1700 Virginia. The Fletchers then migrated inland likey through the Cumberland Gap along the North Carolina Virginia boarder. into Tennessee, probably because the government was giving land to settlers. Thomas A. Fletcher, born about 1749, Died February 18, 1843. His wife is unknown but they were probably married in VA. Children of Thomas A. mentioned IN his will

    John P., William, Thomas B., James, Elizabeth, Jane, Frances, Margaret, Mary.

    More about Thomas A. Fletcher

    Note: I have documented as much as possible. Please click on the links to see the documents. Other Fletcher lines have attempted to find a link to Thomas A. Fletcher but were unable to. I have the only known links to Thomas A.

    I believe that Aaron Fletcher of the Kyles Ford TN area MAY have also been a son of Thomas A. but died before the writing of the will and therefore, is not mentioned in the will. I believe this because Aaron was found living close to the other sons of Thomas in the census data. However, there was at least one other line of Fletchers that passed through this area. There was a large group of my Fletcher line in Kyles Ford for at least 4 generations and some descendents are still there. The will of Thomas A. connects him to John.

    Thomas A. Fletcher was a Revolutionary war veteran. He had brothers named William and Benjamin according to his deposition given for the purpose of obtaining a Revolutionary War Pension. With the help of Betty Fletcher Starnes, we also discovered this monument in Scott County Virginia Which mentions Thomas Fletcher and Daniel Boone in the next column. According to many documents, Thomas A. Fletcher was living in Scott county Virginia and Hancock county Tennessee while drawing his pension. This is the area where my known great great grandfather, Henry Fletcher was from. This area is known as Kyles Ford Tennessee and is on the virginia boarder.

    Thomas A. Fletcher, AKA Thomas Fletcher was granted a Revolutionary War pension. See the document here. It is this will of Thomas Fletcher that links him to John Fletcher of the Kyles Ford region. Thomas A. mentions John P. as his son.

    There were two Thomas Fletchers, from Virginia, who fought in the Revolutionary war. Researcher Nadine Christall and I have compared notes and we are convinced that one Thomas belongs to Nadine's line and the other to my line. The Thomas Fletcher from nadine's line was married to Kaziah Ferris as documented in court records. That Thomas Fletcher was not know to have been in the Kyles Ford or south-western Virginia area.

    Senator John McCain Connection? An interesting question, is Senator John McCain kin to the Fletcher's of Kyles Ford?

    Newspapers reported in October of 2008 that Senator John McCain is descended from Azariah D. Fletcher via his grandmother Myrtle. A check of the 1840 census reveals ONLY ONE Azariah D. Fletcher in the entire United States and he lives in Kyles Ford Tennessee! Notice in the census that Azariah is 13th from the top. Azariah D. Fletcher lives very close to Anthony Smith (3rd name from top) who is the son-in-law to Thomas A. Fletcher. In his will dated November 30, 1841 Thomas A. Fletcher is living with his daughter Elizabeth and son-in-law, Anthony Smith. At the very least Azariah had to know Thomas and his daughter. Azariah was a less common name even back then. I think it is very possible that Azariah D. Fletcher is descended from Thomas A. Fletcher through one of his 4 known sons: William, James, John or Thomas B.Fletcher. (Aaron Fletcher MAY have also been a son to Thomas A. but died before the writing of Thomas A's will and therefore not mentioned.) Thomas A. lived to be 94 and it is very possible that he out-lived some of his children.

    bill nunu fletcher

    The 1900 Johnson Co. Texas census shows the widow of 1850 Azariah D. Fletcher and his two daughters, Alice and Myrtle. The birth place of their father is reported as TENNESSEE.

    While I have been told that from DNA testing, more than one Fletcher line passed through Hancock, Hawkins, Scott and Lee counties, my line of the Fletchers was in the Kyles Ford area from Thomas A. to John, to Henry, to Wilson to William. That is five generations and my line was one of the bigger lines and remained there the longest before many moved west and north into Clay Co. Kentucky adjacent to Laurel co. Since Azariah D. Fletcher was in Kyles Ford living down the road from Thomas A. and his daughter, I believe that Azariah D. was related to Thomas A.Fletcher. To my knowledge, my line of the Fletchers were the ONLY Fletchers in Kyles Ford and they owned a great deal of land there. Some of my Fletcher line left Kyles Ford and went to Clay Co. Kentucky which is ajacent to Laurel co., And that is where Azariah married Martha Kidwell in her home. Furthermore, to my knowledge no other lines of Fletchers have claimed Azariah D. as their own. So, Azariah seems to fit our tree.

    I think the McCain to Fletcher line MAY go like this:

    Thomas A. Fletcher born about 1749. Lived in Kyles Ford TN area and Scott co. VA
    William Fletcher born about 1777. Or, one of the other4 known sons to Thomas A.(James, John, Thomas B.).
    Azariah D. Fletcher born about 1818. Like my other relatives, left Kyles Ford TN about the same time and some went to Clay co. KY. Appears in Indiana in the 1880 census.
    Azariah D. Fletcher born about 1850. Reportedly married Martha Melinda Kidwell brn. 1853 of Laurel Co. KY ajacent to Clay co.
    Myrtle Fletcher born about 1885 (grandmother of John McCain).

    If you have any information please contact me at

    Generation No. 2 Late 1700s

    i. JOHN P.2 FLETCHER, b. Abt. 1795; d. 03 Oct 1844, Hawkins County,Tennessee. Left this will which is witnessed by my great great grandfather Henry Fletcher.
    iii. JANE FLETCHER, b. Abt. 1780; m. DELANY AMISTED HERRON; b. Abt. 1781; d. Aft. 1860.
    viii. WILLIAM FLETCHER, b. 1777.
    ix. THOMAS B. FLETCHER, b. 1786.

    Generation No. 3 Early 1800s

    2. JOHN P.2 FLETCHER (THOMAS A.1) was born Abt. 1795, and died 03 Oct 1844 in Hawkins County,Tennessee. He married He married CATHERINE CURRY Abt. 1815. She was born Abt. 1798 in Virginia.

    Marriage: Abt. 1815
    Children of JOHN FLETCHER and CATHERINE CURRY are:
    i. HENRY FLETCHER, b. Abt. 1812, Tazewell,Virginia.
    ii. MARY POLLY FLETCHER, b. 1814; m. JAMES DAVID SMITH; b. 1811.
    iii. WILLIAM FLETCHER, b. Abt. 1815.
    iv. SUSAN FLETCHER, b. 25 Jun 1816; d. Bef. 1900; m. WILLIAM MABE; b. 27 Jul 1813; d. 04 Apr 1896.
    v. JOHN W. FLETCHER, b. 1819, North Carolina.
    vi. ROBERT FLETCHER, b. 1820.
    vii. ORPHA FLETCHER, b. 1822; m. WILLIAM A. HICKS.
    ix. CLARA FLETCHER, b. 1825; m. STERLING MITCHELL; b. 1822.
    xi. JAMES FLETCHER, b. 1831.
    xii. MAHALA FLETCHER, b. 1833, Hancock County,Tennessee; d. 10 Mar 1906, Knoxville,Tennessee (Knox

    Notes about John and Catharine. One transcription of John Fletcher's will, his wife is called Christine. That is incorrect. We went to Kyles Ford and copied the hand written will on file in the courthouse. The will clearly says Catharine and not Christene. It is this will of John that links him to Henry Fletcher of the Kyles Ford region.

    Henry is a witness on the will of John and I believe that Henry is the son of John. Russell Belcher is also a witness on the will. A descendent of Russell (wife to Dayton Moles) currently owns the land where I found the Fletcher Graveyard. John and Henry owned this land and other plots of land in the Kyles Ford area. The Clinch River is mentioned as a landmark in the land deed. John and Henry Fletcher were given land grants from the state of Tennessee. I also found land documents showing that Anthony Smith owned land in the Kyles Ford area. In his will, Thomas A. Fletcher requested he be buried on the farm of Anthony Smith who was married to the daughter of Thomas A.Fletcher.

    I found a land deal involving John and Henry AFTER the death of John which bothered me but then I realized that Henry also had a Brother named John. The John Fletcher mentioned in the land deeds with Henry MAY be his brother John.

    Also, there may or MAY NOT have been two John Fletchers in the area both born around 1795. Two different John Fletchers show up in the census living a short distance apart. However, the men were the same age, had the same number of kids in at least one census. I think they were both the same family and owned two different farms and were counted twice in the census.

    Generation No. 4 Mid 1800s

    i. CATHERINE FLETCHER, b. 1838.
    ii. WM WILLIAM FLETCHER, b. 1839.
    iii. WILSON FLETCHER, b. 1841.
    iv. MARY ANN (Polly Ann) FLETCHER, b. 1844.
    v. BENJAMIN FLETCHER, b. 1847. Note that Thomas A. Fletcher had two brothers; one named Ben and one named William. Henry had two sons named Ben and William. Married Harriet Pridemore who is buried in Kyles Ford
    vi. JOHN FLETCHER, b. 1850. Is this John Jesse Fletcher buried in Kyles Ford? Dates are off.
    vii. AMANDA FLETCHER, b. 1854.

    Notes about Henry: In a genealogy document given to me by researcher Ann Filcowitz it names Thomas as the father of Henry. I think that is incorrect. I did not find any documents linking the two. I found the graves of JJohn Jesse Fletcher and Harriet Fletcher in Kyles Ford up on a hill behind the home of Dayton Moles on Fox Branch Road. A few documents refer to this area as Fox Branch. Harriet Pridemore Fletcher was married to Ben Fletcher. See the grave video below.

    Wilson Fletcher, wife and son W.M. left the Kyles Ford area for Manchester Kentucky located in Clay county. His death record shows that he died in Clay county. Robert House advised me that his ancestor Pete House was the undertaker for Wilson. In Manchester Kentucky, my Fletcher line is connected to the House line several different ways. My aunts and uncles remember a descendent of Pete House....also named Pete House.

    Azariah D. Fletcher born 1850, and reported to be the great grandfather to senator John McCain married Martha Kidwell in adjacent Laurel Co. Kentucky. I believe that the 1812 Azariah D. Fletcher may have left Kyles Ford Tennessee and went to Clay Co. Kentucky with Wilson and possibly others. Of course, I would love to claim kinship to senator John McCain but, I am looking for more definitive evidence linking 1812 Azariah to 1850 Azariah and links from 1812 Azariah to Thomas A. Fletcher. I have written to the Hawkins County Historical Society and asked if they could check local records which are not avaialble online.

    Kyles Ford Video

    *********************************** John Jesse Fletcher SET AT 280 X 280 *****************************

    john jesse fletcher.jpg Update: New information on video above. John Jesse Fletcher, shown at left, is the man in the grave featured in the video above. John is one of my great, great uncles. Two different people have advised me that John was shot in the leg in a dispute over a woman and died as a result. In one account, John was apparently chopping some fire wood for a single, attractive woman and another man took offense to this and shot john in the leg with a shot-gun. In the photo at left, John is holding a pocket knife which is half open. I have no information on the picture or why he is posing as he is. I reckon it was a new knife and Jesse was a wantin' ta show it off! LOL

    Finding that graveyard was a small miracle in itself. I was told that my line came from Kyles Ford TN by Francis Howard Hickey who is a distant cousin. Then I found a small mention of a Fletcher graveyard in Kyles Ford TN, I put the longitude and latitude of the graveyard in my GPS, drove there, I saw two guys standing on the side of the road and I asked about the Fletcher graveyard, they pointed across the road and up a steep hill...."thar hit is" they said. No trail, mostly unmarked graves, but I found it within minutes of getting to Kyles Ford! The names on the headstones match people on the census known to be my kin. This was the right place, these are my people. bill and mable jones fletcher manchester kentucky.

    Generation No. 5 Late 1800s

    CHILDREN OF wILSON FLETCHER and MARY "POLLY" JOHNSON? see the census documents here

    Children of WILSON FLETCHER and POLLY JOHNSON? are:
    i. JOHN FLETCHER, b. Jun 1866, Clay County,Kentucky.
    ii. MARTHA FLETCHER, b. Jul 1870, Tennessee; d. Abt. 1914, Manchester,Kentucky (Clay County).
    iii. WILLIAM "W.M." FLETCHER, b. 02 Aug 1881; d. 10 Jul 1947, Manchester,Kentucky (Clay County).

    Notes: Polly may have been married before she married Wilson. I know more than one Fletcher migrated from Kyles Ford TN to Clay County KY. I am not sure what the connection was.

    Generation No. 6 Early 1900s

    Children of W.M. Fletcher b: 1881 d: 1947 Clay co KY and Myrtle White b: 1896 d; 1954 (Father John Crit White, mother unknown Delph

    i. Pearl
    ii. Beve
    iii. Mary Anna (died at age 5)
    iv Catherine (died about age 17)
    v. Mable
    vi. Charles
    vii. Marie
    viii. Amanda
    ix. Matt
    x. William jr
    xi. Josephine
    xii. John Crit

    Generation No. 7


    Sandra Dee
    Mathew Mark
    Michael David

    The Timeline Works

    If Thomas A. was born about ..........................................1749 according to census and war records.
    John Fletcher would have been born about ...............................1780 according to census records.
    Henry was born about .....................................................1811 according to census records.
    Wilson born about ..........................................................1846 accroding to census records.
    W.M.Fletcher born ..........................................................1881 according to his headstone.
    Matt Fletcher (my father) was born in............................. 1927 according to his birth certificate.

    The timeline works, I have the right names, right time, right place and a good but not conclusive paper-trail. I think one of the most convincing pieces of evidence that Thomas A. is in my direct line is the fact that no other lines have claimed him. I even found one genealogy website which said, "to which line does Thomas A. Fletcher belong?" I know that several researchers have unsucessfully searched for connections to him. That fact that no other researchers found a link to Thomas A., is yet another indicator that he is of my line.

    Manchester Kentucky Video

    Amanda Fletcher Keith and John Crit Fletcher are my last two living uncle and aunt. They were 2 of 12 children born to W.M. and Myrtle Fletcher of Manchester Kentucky located in Clay county. Amanda has since passed away. She had a good long life and was one of the best people I ever knew. Sadly, as the older kin folks die off I lose more and more of my connection to my Appalachian roots. I wish I had started my research decades earlier and gathered more information about our past.

    fletcher manchester kentucky

    Our Music From Kyles Ford

    See all of my fletcher genealogy research documents
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